What are the functions of modern semi-synthetic metalworking fluids
The lubrication of metalworking fluids in the cutting process can reduce the friction between the rake face and chips, the flank face and the machined surface, and form a part of the lubricating film, thereby reducing cutting force, friction and power consumption, and reducing the tool and workpiece The surface temperature and tool wear of the friction part of the blank improve the cutting performance of the workpiece material. In the grinding process, after adding the grinding fluid, the grinding fluid penetrates into the grinding wheel abrasive grain-workpiece and abrasive grain-grinding debris to form a lubricating film, which reduces the friction between the interface and prevents abrasive cutting edge wear and adhesion Chips, thereby reducing the grinding force and frictional heat, improving the durability of the grinding wheel and the surface quality of the workpiece.
2) Cooling effect
The cooling effect of metalworking fluids is to take the cutting heat away from the tool and the workpiece through the convection and vaporization between it and the tool (or grinding wheel), the chip and the workpiece that are heated by cutting, thereby effectively reducing the cutting temperature and reducing the workpiece and the workpiece. The thermal deformation of the tool can maintain the hardness of the tool and improve the machining accuracy and tool durability. The cooling performance of metalworking fluids is related to its thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat of vaporization and viscosity (or fluidity). The thermal conductivity and specific heat of water are higher than that of oil, so the cooling performance of water is better than that of oil.
3) Cleaning effect
In the metal cutting process, metalworking fluids are required to have a good cleaning effect. It removes the generated chips, grinding chips, iron powder, oil and sand, prevents contamination of machine tools, workpieces, and tools, and keeps the cutting edge of the tool or grinding wheel sharp without affecting the cutting effect. For oil-based cutting oils, the lower the viscosity, the stronger the cleaning ability, especially for cutting oils containing light components such as kerosene and diesel, the better the permeability and cleaning performance. Water-based metalworking fluids containing surfactants have better cleaning effects because they can form an adsorption film on the surface to prevent particles and sludge from adhering to workpieces, tools and grinding wheels. At the same time, it can penetrate into particles and sludge adhesion. Detach it from the interface and take it away with the metalworking fluids to keep the metalworking fluids clean.
4) Anti-rust effect
In the metal cutting process, the workpiece will be corroded by contact with corrosive media such as sludge generated by the decomposition or oxidation and deterioration of the components of the metalworking fluids and the metalworking fluids. The surface of the machine tool parts in contact with the metalworking fluids will also be corroded. In addition, metalworking fluids are also required to have a certain anti-rust ability when workpieces are temporarily stored after processing or during circulation between processes to prevent environmental media and the remaining metalworking fluids from corrosive substances such as sludge and other corrosive substances from corroding metals. Especially in the humid and rainy seasons in southern my country, more attention should be paid to anti-rust measures between processes.
5) Other functions
In addition to the above four functions, the metalworking fluids used should have good stability, and no precipitation or stratification, oil separation, soap separation and aging will occur during storage and use. It has a certain resistance to bacteria and molds, and is not easy to grow mold and biodegrade to cause odor and deterioration. No damage to painted parts, no harm to human body, no irritating smell. There is no smoke, fog or less smoke during use. It is easy to recycle, low pollution, and the discharged waste liquid is easy to handle. After treatment, it can reach the national standard for industrial sewage discharge.