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Introduction to metalworking fluids

Metalworking fluids are mainly metal processing fluids, which are mainly used for lubrication and cooling, as well as rust prevention and cleaning. General metalworking fluids include cutting fluids, cutting oils, emulsions, stamping oils, quenching oils, quenching agents, high temperature oils, extreme pressure cutting fluids, grinding fluids, anti-rust oils, cleaning agents, blackening agents, and deep drawing oils , Thickener, etc. Metalworking cutting fluid is a soluble lubricant with low foam and high lubricity. It can minimize maintenance costs even in environments with high requirements for machining fluids. It can basically be applied to all types of metals and alloys. Type of processing, it is very effective for the general processing of most iron metals, especially when processing mild steel, cast iron, stainless steel and other special steels, it can play an excellent lubrication and cooling effect at the same time.

If the operation mainly requires heat removal and cooling, then the metal processing cutting fluid can be formulated into a low-concentration processing fluid; if you want to process soft and viscous materials, or require a large amount of friction reduction during low-speed processing, then metal processing can be cut The liquid is formulated into a high-concentration processing liquid. We believe that 7-10% is the most suitable concentration for storage in the liquid tank and the best performance. In addition, if it is grinding, it is generally recommended to use a concentration of 3-5%

This product adopts a very stable formula, which greatly prolongs its service life and does not require any expensive additives. It is also an environmentally friendly product and is very safe for machines and operators-it does not contain any extreme pressure additives such as chlorine and phosphorus, as well as phenol, nitrite, and triazine compounds.
·The product effectively prevents the erosion of bacteria and fungi, greatly increases the service life, and saves the cost of storage and maintenance. The product also has good wetting and adhesion properties, reducing the splash loss of cutting fluid and cleaning the environment.
·The special-effect extreme pressure additive of the product can effectively prevent metal welding and sticking, which can well protect the surface of the machine and the tool, and also prevent the tool from sticking or seizing on the tool holder and tool holder.
·The product is compatible with most processing materials, including: cast iron, steel, copper, aluminum alloy, and a variety of plastics and compounds.
·Metal cutting fluid has a good balance between cooling performance and lubrication performance. Its low water mist and low foam characteristics are very suitable for high pressure, high flow coolant systems. The product has a wide range of applications and can be effectively used in some harsh production conditions, such as: surface processing, centerless grinding, heavy broaching, gear milling, thread milling, etc.
·After use, the coolant can be easily removed with water, processing solution or water-based cleaning agent. The user can use the existing technology, equipment, and follow the general treatment method to dispose of the product.

Metal processing cutting fluid has stable and outstanding performance, and can be applied to various cutting and grinding operations of various materials (including non-metallic materials, such as ceramics, silicon wafers, etc.). The good chemical lubricity and mechanical lubricity of the product can adapt to the most demanding cutting and grinding processing requirements, and it is the best choice for manufacturers of high-quality parts in large quantities.
This product is basically suitable for all types of processing of various metals and alloys. It is very effective for the general processing of most iron metals, especially when processing mild steel, cast iron, stainless steel and other special steels. Lubrication and cooling effect.
With the continuous development and progress of industrial technology, new materials and new processes continue to emerge. Choosing the right cutting fluid in these processing processes is essential to ensure product processing quality, improve processing efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution.
Metalworking fluids are often called "cooling fluids". According to different machining requirements, metalworking fluids can be divided into cutting fluids and grinding fluids. In the manufacturing industry, the application range of metalworking fluids is very wide. For example, various metalworking fluids are widely used in engine machining and gearbox machining, equipment manufacturing, gear industry, etc.
Metal processing includes rolling, forging, punching, drawing, forming, cutting and grinding. Most metal processing depends on good metal processing fluids, so the amount of metal processing fluids is large, including fatty acid soaps, hydrocarbon oils, emulsified oils and aqueous solutions. With the increase in metal processing requirements, synthetic oils and synthetic metal processing fluids need to be used in many occasions to improve the quality of metal processing. Synthetic lubricants used in metalworking fluids include polyalkylene glycols, esters, synthetic hydrocarbons and other synthetic lubricants.
Classification of metalworking fluids
Metalworking fluids are complicated. In terms of composition, metalworking fluids can be roughly divided into four types: pure oil, soluble oil, chemical fluid (synthetic fluid) and semi-chemical fluid (semi-synthetic fluid). The latter three are usually also called water. Base metal working fluid. Metalworking fluids are usually classified by the content of mineral oil: [2]
Metalworking fluids are usually classified by the content of mineral oil:
⑴ Pure oil metal working fluid, the oil content is 90%-95%.
⑵ Emulsified metal working fluid, mineral oil content exceeds 50%
⑶ Semi-synthetic metal working fluid with mineral oil content of 5% to 50%.
⑷ Fully synthetic metalworking fluid without mineral oil.
Main functions of metalworking fluids
⑴Lubrication function
The metal surface is subjected to a relatively large cutting force during the machining process, and there is relative movement, which will generate a large friction between the tool and the surface of the workpiece, and between the tool and the chips. The existence of this friction phenomenon will generate greater heat and aggravate the wear of the tool and the deterioration of the surface accuracy of the workpiece, and will reduce the processing efficiency. Metalworking fluids can greatly reduce this friction, extend tool life and improve the surface quality of processed parts. Generally speaking, the higher the mineral oil content in the metalworking fluid, the better the lubricating performance of the metalworking fluid. However, with the development of metalworking fluid technology, semi-synthetic and fully synthetic metalworking fluids containing extreme pressure additives are also available. It also has good lubricating properties.
⑵Cooling function
This is also the reason why metalworking fluids are commonly referred to as "cooling fluids", because there are the dual effects of shear and friction in the machining process, which inevitably generate greater heat. If this heat cannot be taken away in time, It will cause high temperature between the tool and the workpiece, which will soften the tool or even reduce the hardness of the workpiece surface, increase tool wear, and affect the surface accuracy of the workpiece. Not only that, high temperature will also produce built-up edge, resulting in deviation of workpiece machining accuracy. The flushing effect of the large flow metal working fluid can take away the heat generated in the machining process, reduce the temperature of the tool and the workpiece, extend the life of the tool, improve the surface accuracy of the workpiece, and improve the efficiency of machining.
⑶ Chip removal function
If the machining chips produced in the metal machining process cannot be removed from the machining area in time, it may produce built-up edge and cause wear of the machined surface.
⑷Anti-rust function
Most metal materials (such as iron and cast iron) will quickly rust after being in contact with moist air and water. In the metal machining process, if between two different processes, the metal working fluid cannot provide good The anti-rust function may cause corrosion of the semi-finished products, which will cause the product to be scrapped.
In addition to the above functions, metalworking fluids must also have anti-foaming, environmentally friendly, and antibacterial functions. Different machining methods have different functional requirements for metalworking fluids. For example, heavy-duty and low-speed machining require more metal lubrication performance. High speed and low load machining have higher requirements for cooling.

Development status ⒈The grade of metal processing oil (liquid) is low, and the quality is far behind foreign countries. China has a long history of using metal processing oil (liquid), generally traditional turning, drilling, tapping, broaching, polishing and forming For light drawing, extrusion, die punching, rolling, forging and other metal processing technology, the development of technology, product quality and variety is slow. At the end of the 1980s, the domestic demand for metal processing oil (liquid) was about 10kt/a. Over the past 30 years of reform and opening up, China has gradually become the world's manufacturing plant, with more than 4 million metal cutting machine tools and a total demand of about 400kt/a. China's metal processing oil (liquid) is mainly low-grade, with few high-grade oils, and mainly depends on imports. There is a certain gap between the quality of domestic products and foreign oil products.
In addition, the reasons for high-grade oil imports are as follows:
⑴ Mainly because foreign equipment manufacturers have contracts with oil suppliers, the equipment produced by equipment manufacturers must use special oil provided by the oil suppliers, and their interests are mutually beneficial.
(2) Domestic enterprises that have introduced equipment cannot accept domestically produced alternative oils, and worry that the quality of the oil will not meet the technical requirements, damage large equipment, and cause serious economic losses to the enterprise.
⑶ Simulation test and bench test cannot meet the test requirements. Relevant domestic experts conduct research based on the nature of imported oil samples. Although the physical and chemical indicators can reach the quality level of imported oil, due to the lack of critical simulation tests and bench tests, the developed alternative special oil cannot be mass-produced, which inhibits Chinese metal processing The development of oil (liquid).
⒈2 Quality standards and test methods lag behind
Domestic metal processing oil (liquid) quality standards and test methods have done a lot of work and made great progress in conforming to international standardization, but the formulation of quality standardization and test methods lags behind and cannot keep up with the development of the mechanical processing industry. With the rapid development of new technologies in the mechanical processing industry, there are many varieties of metal processing oils (liquids), and their compositions vary greatly. Domestically, metal processing oils (liquids) are classified as process oils. There are few existing national standards and industry standards, and many metal processing oils (liquids) do not have quality technical indicators. China has joined the World Trade Organization. Under these favorable conditions, relevant departments should obtain the quality standards of foreign special oil products in a timely manner based on relevant information, and formulate national standards or industry standards with reference to foreign standards, so as to integrate with foreign companies, which is beneficial to metal processing. The development of oil (liquid).
⒈3 Lack of equipment, types and methods for simulation test and bench test
At present, the most difficult problem faced by scientific and technical personnel on the research subject is the lack of simulation test and bench test equipment for China's metal processing oil (liquid). On the one hand, the development of domestic machinery industry is slow and there is a gap with foreign technology. On the other hand, metal processing oil (liquid) has various varieties, large differences in properties, and different processes. In the performance evaluation of oil products, there are test instruments that cannot be universalized. The results do not match the actual use, or the test results cannot be obtained. There are too few performance evaluation equipment for this kind of oil in China, which restricts the research and development of metal processing oil (liquid). This is also one of the reasons why the domestic metal processing oil (liquid) grade cannot be improved.
⒈4 Metal processing oil (liquid) formula is backward
The formula used in China's metal processing oil (liquid) is relatively backward, and many toxic and hazardous materials are still in use today. Such as sulfide-containing vulcanized fat, active sulfide, chloride as an extreme pressure agent, nitrite rust inhibitor for water-based cutting fluid, phenolic compound as coupling agent and bactericide in soluble oil, etc. Additives are still being used. This is undoubtedly a serious problem to environmental pollution and the health of the operators.
⒉Development trend of metal processing oil (liquid)
⒉1. Environment-friendly metal processing oil (liquid) is the general direction of development
As human beings realize the importance of environmental protection of the earth on which they depend for survival, they put environmental protection in the first place. The research, production and use of metal processing oil (liquid) must first meet the requirements of environmental protection laws and regulations, and must consider the protection of workers' health and safety, whether it is harmful to the environment, and the treatment of waste liquid after processing. Therefore, the composition of various metal processing oil products must have the advantages of non-toxicity, low odor, low oil mist, long life, low waste liquid treatment cost, and strong biodegradability. Metal processing oil (liquid) In addition to strict control of the aromatic hydrocarbon of its base oil, some of the extreme pressure additives containing chloride will be combined with polysulfide, phosphate and poly-α olefin. Other extreme pressure agents are used in conjunction and replaced by composite agents with good effects; the nitrite fungicide used in water-based cutting fluids is replaced by amine borate, phosphate, and fatty acid, but its effect and dosage need to be studied. In addition, such as polyethylene glycols, synthetic sulfonates, lipids, natural fats, boric acid diethylene glycol amine salt amide, morpholine and its derivatives, etc., will be widely used in the formulation of metal processing oils (liquids) in. Environmentally-friendly metal processing oil (liquid) is an important subject of recent research.
⒉2. Synthetic fluid is the development direction of metal processing oil (liquid)
The synthetic fluid is mainly composed of water, cleaning agent, rust inhibitor, antiseptic and other materials, without mineral oil. Current status of application of metal processing oil (liquid) in China.

Metalworking fluids basically cover most of the fluids used for metalworking, such as emulsified metalworking fluids, semi-synthetic metalworking fluids, fully synthetic metalworking fluids, metalworking oils, etc., which are all metalworking fluids. Regarding the use of metalworking fluids, China Metalworking Fluids Network will introduce you to metalworking manufacturers.
First: Although there are many types of metalworking fluids, most of the methods used are similar. For water-soluble metalworking fluids, it needs to be diluted by adding water. As for the ratio of metalworking fluid to water, You can consult suppliers who provide us with metalworking fluids. What we need to pay attention to is that the quality of the water added must meet the requirements of metalworking fluids, because water is also divided into hard water and soft water.
Second: The use of metal processing oil is different from the method of using metal processing fluid. Metal processing oil can not be added with water, and it can be used directly without adding water. It does not need to be diluted during use. However, in metal processing, you need to choose metal processing oil with the required concentration of load processing according to your processing materials, methods and requirements.
Third: Whether it is metal processing fluid or metal processing oil, store it in a cool and dry place, avoid direct sunlight. Follow the first-in first-out principle when using.